Great article with great observations!
I've come up with the Starship Class Rapid Refit and Modification Program as a sort of grand unifying theory answering many of the discrepancies we see in STOS. I've submitted a separate post with more details to this site. Hopefully the moderator will publish it soon.
I also have a Facebook page dedicated to this little obsession (and on the work bench, a few models to represent MkI through MkV Heavy Cruisers dating from 2225 to 2245):
This is an update of a previous gif I've done to show the evolution of the Constitution class starships:
https://www.facebook.com/STARSHIPCLASS/ ... 905326968/
And here is a photo collage showing the evolution and different Starship Class technology levels: